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Ketu South Municipality is one of the twenty five (25) municipalities/districts in the Volta Region. The Municipality is located at the south-eastern corner of Ghana. It shares boundaries with the Republic of Togo to the East, Keta Municipality to the West, Ketu North District to the North, and Gulf of Guinea to the South. The Municipality has a total land size of approximately 779 sq. km representing 3.8 percent of the regional land area and lies within latitudes 60 03’N and 60 10’N, and longitude 10 6’E and 10 11’E.
The Municipality is strategically located with added advantage as the Eastern Gateway to Ghana where continuous cross-border activities are carried out on daily basis. The location of the municipality to the main Ghana-Togo boarder has a lot of security and welfare implications with potentials for brisk commercial economic activities.

Ketu South Municipal Map

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Ketu South Municipal in Regional Context

Topography and Drainage
Ketu South Municipal is a relatively low lying area with altitudes ranging from less than 15 metres at the coast and increasing to 66 metres inland.The coastline is fairly smooth and marked by sandbars. The Municipality is drained by the Gulf of Guinea which stretches along its entire southern boundary. The Municipality is endowed with about 30 kilometres stretch of wetlands/lagoon, extending from the Keta lagoon at Blekusu to the environs of Aflao, which provides opportunities for aquaculture activities, eco-tourism, development of green belt, and salt mining.
These lagoons occasionally get flooded resulting into destruction of property and rending inhabitants homeless with its social implications. Poor drainage of the Municipality places a lot of limitation on agriculture development especially in the promotion of dam construction for irrigation activities. However, the lagoons in the municipality have the potential for economic development and employment generation.

Map Depicting Wetlands in Ketu South Municipal

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Section of the Lagoon Stretching from Aflao to Keta

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Geology and Soil

The Municipality is underlain by three main geological formations namely the Keta Soil Association, Ada-Oyibi and Muni Soil Association and the Toje-Alajo Soil Formation. The Keta Soil Association is characterized with deep loose and yellowish sands occupying flat to gently undulating topography which dominates the southern sector of the Municipality. The Oyibi-Muni Soil Association is characterized mainly with deep black clay occurring under saline grassland along the margin of creeks and blackish lagoon, grayish salt encrusted incoherent sandy loam often with shell. This type of soil is found also in the south especially around Denu-Agbozume areas. The Toje-Alajo Soil Association is a very deep red loam (Toje Series) on upper of gently undulating land with yellowish brown loams. This soil grade down-slope into almost white sand and the valley bottom have mainly grey calcareous and acid clay. This soil formation is the dominant soil type in the municipality and characterizes the central and northern belt of the municipality. The prevailing soil type in the Municipality greatly influence agricultural activities and the type of crops produced. The soil supports the production of mainly cassava, maize and vegetable.
There are other soil formation, the Regosolic Groundwater Laterites, the Recent Deposits of the littoral consisting of marine sands and the Tertiary formation comprising Savannah Ochrosols for its soil type. These soil types are suitable for the cultivation of different types of crops production.

Map showing Soil Types in the Municipality

Climate

The Municipality falls within the dry coastal savanna climatic zones.The average monthly temperatures vary between 24℃ and 30℃, which are generally high for plant growth throughout the year. The mean annual rainfall for the Municipalityis 850mm at the coast increasing to 1,000mm inland.The rainfall is of double maxima type occurring from April to July and September to October.The dry season, which is dominated by the dry harmattan winds, extends from December to February. Generally, rainfall in the Municipality is considered low and erratic particularly along the coastal strip between Agbozume and Aflao during the minor season. The low rainfalls couple with the soil type found in the Municipality account for the low agricultural productivity and interest. This phenomenon makes the municipality dependent on other districts for food supply. It places a lot of limitations on the capacity to develop dams to support agriculture development. In the lean season the Municipality depends on food importation from the republic of Togo to supplement food supply from other parts of Ghana.

Vegetation

The original vegetation of the Municipality is Coastal / Guinea Savannah woodland made up of short grassland with small clumps of bush and trees found mainly in the Northern parts of the Municipality.To the South are coastal scrub, grassland and mangrove forests in the marshlands.The locally known trees are Agorti, Adzido, Atortsi and Atsitoe. Another well-known plant is the Ketsi, which is used in making mats, hats and local basket known as Kevi.Along the seashore, the plant cover does not form a continuous carpet but is dotted with herbaceous, erect or creeping plants. 
The collaborative Forest Management which was implemented during the mid to late 2000 let to the establishment of woodlots in the various parts of the municipality. Among the numerous woodlots were the teak plantations at Akame, Eucalyptus and SenaSiamea stands at Tokor (about 500m from the municipal assembly) and the teak stand at Nanteme-Kopeyia.
The extensive farming activities in the municipality, bush burning for games and pasture, and the cutting down of trees for fuel wood over the years, have reduced the natural vegetation. The decimation of the vegetation by population pressure may have adversely affected rainfall in the municipality. As the vegetation changes from its natural state to more grassland, the threat of bush fire are common. This phenomenon have negatively affected agricultural production,water bodies, rainfall and the fauna and flora contributing unnoticeably to the climate change. The incidence of bush fire is a big developmental concern that needs to be addressed in order to conserve the vegetation.

Map Showing Vegetation of the Municipality

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Environmental Situation

Environmental sanitation cuts across all sectors of the economy including those that concern health, environmental protection, improvement in human settlements and services, tourism and general economic productivity. Addressing the poor behavior and attitude towards environmental sanitation is critical area of concern for achieving the millennium Development Goal 7 of ensuring environmental sustainability. Environmental sanitation encompasses activities such as provision and maintenance of sanitary facilities the provision of services, public education, community and individual actions. The environmental sanitation issues are of great concern since it is linked to the general health condition of the people and more especially because the municipality is surrounded with lagoons that breed a lot of mosquitoes.

Condition of Natural Environment

In addition to the devastating effect on the natural environment, the human kind search for survival has led to the exploitation of the existing tropical forest through a mix of economic activities such as hunting, gathering and shifting cultivation of crops. Extensive clearing of land for agriculture and the extraction of lumber for construction and fuel wood had reduced the vegetative cover of the municipality to more or less low savanna. Human search for survival and the need to meet the basic needs of life has led people to engage themselves into several economic activities. In many cases, these human activities have led to the degradation of the environment.

The common anti-environmental activities in the Municipality include: uncontrolled sand winning which is carried out extensively in Aflao, Somey Fugo and Wego zones. Deliberate bush burning for games and cutting down of trees for charcoal burning and fuel wood for economic gains are done in the entire municipality. These activities have inflicted irreparable damage to the natural environment. The natural environment is therefore threatened by desertification, lost of soil fertility, land degradation, lower rainfall pattern, high temperature and low humidity.

In an attempt to reverse the damage caused to the natural environment, the Forest Services Division has established a forest range at Denu. The range has a total holding capacity of about 120,000 seedlings. The Service is also supporting the establishment of tree nurseries, woodlots and tree planting by individuals and communities. However, the rate of destruction supersedes the intervention for restoration of the natural environment. The underlying issue is for the Municipality to work more in changing the Values, Attitude and Behaviour (VABs) that people have towards the natural environment.

Cultural Characteristics

Culture plays a very important role either in advancing or derailing development. The people of Ketu South are part of the Ewe sub-group found in Togo, Benin and Volta Region of Ghana. They are a patrilineal society governed by hierarchical centralized authority. In the hierarchy of chieftaincy institution, the paramount chief assumes the highest rank and serves as the overlord with enormous powers. Underneath the paramount chief, there are divisional and sub-chiefs which serve in different roles and perform varied responsibilities. 

The Municipality is culturally homogenous though with negligible variations. Primarily, the area is dominated by traditional customs and tradition which by their practices had contributed to the preservation of the eco-system with the creation of few virgin forests notably at Nogokpo and Klikor. There are shrines located in most parts of the municipality especially in the rural areas where over 53.4 percent of the population according to the 2010 population and Housing Census live. Some of the well-known shrines in the municipality are Zakadza shrine at Nogokpo and Adzima shrine at Klikor with claims for healing and bringing justice to the oppressed in the society. The main features of the cultural setting in the Municipality could be identified with the chieftaincy institutions, traditional music and dance, Voodo worship and the traditional recipe which identifies them as a people. These may have affected the value, attitude and behavior systems of the people that could impact on the development of the Municipality. 

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Pouring of Libation, a Traditional Prayer
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Christianity

 One other important and recognized religious group in the municipality is Christianity. Orthodox, Charismatic, Pentecostal Churches as well as prayer camps especially in the urban areas abound in the area. According to the 2010 Population and Housing Census, Christianity accounts for 59.0% of the total population followed by Traditional Religion (27.9%) and Islam (3.5%) respectively. 

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Religious Composition of the Population
Source: Ghana Statistical Service, 2010 Population and Housing Census.
The Municipality is dominated by one major ethnic group, the Ewes, accounting for 97% of the populace. The remaining 3% are made up of Akans, Dangmes and a negligible proportion of northern ethnic groups.